Table 2

Sample characteristics by survey, described with the number of respondents (proportion)

CharacteristicSubgroupRespondents, n (%)
June 2020September 2020July 2021
ChildN=3411N=2553N=4327
Age in years0–4628 (18.4)520 (20.4)1291 (29.8)
5-111356 (39.8)1153 (45.2)1705 (39.4)
12-171427 (41.8)880 (34.5)1331 (30.8)
GenderF1664 (48.7)1242 (48.7)2013 (46.5)
M1747 (51.2)1311 (51.4)2314 (53.5)
CaregiverN=2020N=1434N=2508
GenderF1003 (49.7)758 (52.9)1458 (58.1)
M1017 (50.4)676 (47.1)1050 (41.9)
Sole carerYes462 (22.9)282 (19.7)704 (28.1)
No1558 (77.1)1152 (80.3)1804 (71.9)
Education*Y12326 (16.1)239 (16.7)422 (16.8)
Cert.518 (25.6)390 (27.2)693 (27.6)
Uni.1176 (58.2)805 (56.1)1393 (55.5)
Born outside AustraliaYes546 (27.4)329 (23.4)622 (25.4)
No1444 (72.6)1078 (76.6)1827 (74.6)
Home language other than EnglishYes413 (20.5)324 (22.6)600 (23.9)
No1607 (79.6)1110 (77.4)1908 (76.1)
Socioeconomic
SEIFA quintile (1=most disadvantage, 5=least disadvantage)1213 (10.6)172 (12.0)327 (13.0)
2273 (13.5)245 (17.1)391 (15.6)
3370 (18.3)250 (17.4)511 (20.4)
4457 (22.7)319 (22.3)571 (22.8)
5705 (34.9)448 (31.2)707 (28.2)
Low income (<$A1000)†Yes254 (14.7)212 (16.9)427 (19.2)
No1480 (85.3)1040 (83.1)1782 (80.7)
Could not afford essential items‡Yes527 (26.1)400 (27.9)822 (32.8)
No1493 (73.9)1034 (72.1)1686 (67.2)
Pandemic experience
Job/income loss§Yes559 (27.7)381 (26.6)711 (28.4)
No1461 (72.3)1053 (73.4)1797 (71.7)
Current lockdown¶Yes0 (0)419 (29.2)1416 (56.5)
No2020 (100)1015 (70.8)1092 (43.5)
State as a proxy for total length of lockdown (Vic=most, other=least)¶Vic612 (30.3)473 (33.0)746 (29.7)
NSW617 (30.5)449 (31.3)791 (31.5)
Other791 (39.2)512 (35.7)971 (38.7)
  • Data were weighted using national demographic distributions for caregiver age, gender, family structure (sole caregiving, number of children and any under 5 years), state/territory and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas Index of Relative Disadvantage (SEIFA).

  • *Highest education coded as year 12 or less (up to the end of high/secondary school; Y12); vocational training certificate (‘cert.’); or university degree (‘uni’).

  • †Low income defined according to Australian definitions of income poverty. Missing 767 caregivers who preferred not to report income.

  • ‡Any one or more of mortgage or rent; electricity, gas, water bills; food; healthcare; prescription medicines; home or car insurance; mobile phone bills; internet, in the last month.

  • §Job loss by one or two adults, or reduction in income, due to COVID-19.

  • ¶No Australians were in lockdown for the June 2020 poll, so the number/proportion is for the whole cohort. For the September 2020 poll, only residents of metropolitan Melbourne in the state of Victoria were in lockdown (Y) compared with all other Australians (N). In July 2021, many states/territories were going in and out of lockdown, and this question was asked directly (Y/N). Overall, Victorians experienced the longest total lockdown, followed by NSW, followed by other states and territories.

  • NSW, New South Wales; Vic, Victoria.