Table 1

Characteristics at birth of infants extubated from conventional ventilation and high-frequency ventilation at first extubation attempt, n=316

VariableExtubated from CVExtubated from HFOV
Successful, n=140Failed, n=121P valueSuccessful, n=33Failed, n=22P value
GA, weeks, median (IQR)25.1 (24.4–25.5)24.4 (23.5–25.1)<0.001*24.4 (23.5–25.1)24.1 (23.5–24.4)0.13*
Birth weight g, mean (SD)695 (147)651 (124)0.01641 (127)628 (118)0.69
Complete ANS course†, n (%)84/133 (63)69/116 (59)0.6020/31 (65)10/20(50)0.39
Vaginal delivery, n (%)86 (61)91 (75)0.02*20 (61)16 (73)0.40*
Male sex, n (%)64 (46)77 (64)0.004*9 (27)10 (45)0.25*
Female sex, n (%)76 (54)44 (36)24 (73)12 (55)
Multiple birth, n (%)32 (23)33 (27)0.4810 (30)6 (27)1.0
SGA, n (%)29 (21)21 (17)0.35*6 (18)4 (18)1.0
RSS at birth‡, median (IQR)2.1 (1.7–2.9)2.3 (1.9–2.9)0.142.6 (1.9–4.0)3.1 (2.0–4.6)0.39
Apgar <5 at 5 min, n (%)15 (11)29 (24)0.01*9 (27)7 (32)0.77*
CRIB II>14, n (%)64 (48)74 (64)0.02*20 (61)14 (67)0.78*
Surfactant <first 30 min of life, n (%)137/139 (99)119/120 (99)1.031 (94)22 (100)0.51
LISA, n (%)19 (14)9 (7)0.160 (0)2 (9)0.16
  • *Variables included in multivariable analysis.

  • †A complete ANS course was defined as when the first dose was administered at least 24 hours before birth. Time of first dose was not registered in 16 (4.9%) infants.

  • ‡RSS was calculated as a product of MAP and fraction of inspired oxygen. Mean RSS at birth was calculated for each infant’s first 6 hour of life.

  • ANS, antenatal steroids; CRIB, Clinical Risk Index for Babies; CV, conventional ventilation; GA, gestational age; HFOV, high frequency oscillatory ventilation; LISA, less invasive surfactant administration; MAP, mean airway pressure; RSS, Respiratory Severity Score; SGA, small for gestational age.