Table 2

Accuracy of physical examination by fellow versus echocardiography

ConditionSensitivity in % (95% CI)Specificity in % (95% CI)PPV in % (95% CI)NPV in % (95% CI)Accuracy in % (95% CI)LR+ (95% CI)LR− (95% CI)
Normal heart96.2 (92.6 to 98.3)94.3 (91.3 to 96.6)91.4 (87.3 to 94.3)97.5 (95.2 to 98.7)95.0 (92.9 to 96.9)17.0 (10.9 to 26.3)0.04 (0.02 to 0.08)
Abnormal heart*94.3 (91.3 to 96.6)96.2 (92.6 to 98.3)97.5 (95.2 to 98.7)91.4 (87.3 to 94.3)95.0 (92.9 to 96.7)24.8 (12.5 to 48.9)0.06 (0.04 to 0.09)
 ASD92.3 (86.3 to 96.3)99.5 (98.3 to 99.9)98.4 (93.8 to 99.6)97.6 (95.8 to 98.7)97.8 (96.2 to 98.9)191.5 (48.0 to 764.)0.08 (0.04 to 0.14)
 PDA85.6 (76.6 to 92.0)99.6 (98.4 to 99.9)97.5 (90.6 to 99.4)97.2 (95.5 to 98.3)97.2 (95.5 to 98.5)194.6 (48.7 to 777.9)0.15 (0.09 to 0.24)
 VSD93.6 (85.8 to 97.9)97.4 (95.6 to 98.7)86.0 (77.9 to 91.5)99.0 (97.5 to 99.5)96.9 (95.1 to 98.2)36.0 (20.8 to 63.8)0.06 (0.03 to 0.15)
 VSD-PS86.1 (70.5 to 95.3)100.0 (99.3 to 100)100.099.0 (97.8 to 99.6)99.1 (97.9 to 99.7)0.14 (0.06 to 0.31)
Normal heart for age <1 year91.9 (82.2 to 97.3)93.8 (88.2 to 97.3)87.7 (78.4 to 93.3)96.0 (91.3 to 98.3)93.2 (88.6 to 96.3)14.8 (7.6 to 29.1)0.09 (0.04 to 0.20)
Abnormal heart for age <1 year93.8 (88.2 to 97.3)91.9 (82.2 to 97.3)96.0 (91.3 to 98.3)87.7 (78.4 to 93.3)93.2 (88.6 to 96.3)11.6 (5.01 to 27.0)0.07 (0.03 to 0.13)
  • *Abnormal heart includes ASD, PDA, VSD and VSD-PS.

  • †Approaches infinity as specificity is 100%.

  • ASD, atrial septal defect; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; NPV, negative predictive value; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus; PPV, positive predictive value; VSD, ventricular septal defect; VSD-PS, VSD with pulmonic stenosis physiology.