Table 3

Accuracy of physical examination by consultant versus echocardiography

ConditionSensitivity in % (95% CI)Specificity in % (95% CI)PPV in % (95% CI)NPV in % (95% CI)Accuracy in % (95% CI)LR+ (95% CI)LR− (95% CI)
Normal heart98.6 (95.9 to 99.7)94.9 (92.0 to 97.0)92.4 (88.5 to 95.1)99.1 (97.2 to 95.1)96.3 (94.4 to 97.7)19.4 (12.2 to 30.9)0.02 (0.00 to 0.05)
Abnormal heart*94.9 (92.0 to 97.0)98.6 (95.9 to 99.7)99.1 (97.2 to 95.1)92.4 (88.5 to 95.1)96.3 (94.4 to 97.7)66.4 (21.6 to 204.4)0.05 (0.03 to 0.08)
 ASD95.4 (90.2 to 98.3)99.5 (98.3 to 99.9)98.4 (93.7 to 99.6)98.6 (96.9 to 99.3)98.5 (97.1 to 99.4)197.9 (49.6 to 789.2)0.05 (0.02 to 0.10)
 PDA87.8 (79.2 to 93.7)100.0 (99.2 to 100.0)100.097.6 (95.9 to 98.6)98.0 (96.4 to 98.9)0.12 (0.07 to 0.21)
 VSD92.4 (84.2 to 97.2)98.5 (96.9 to 99.4)91.2 (83.3 to 95.6)98.7 (97.3 to 99.4)97.6 (95.9 to 98.7)61.5 (29.4 to 128.7)0.08 (0.04 to 0.17)
 VSD-PS91.7 (77.5 to 98.3)100.0 (99.3 to 100.0)100.099.4 (98.3 to 99.8)99.4 (98.4 to 99.9)0.08 (0.03 to 0.25)
Normal heart for age <1 year98.4 (91.3 to 100.0)94.6 (89.1 to 97.8)89.7 (80.9 to 94.7)99.2 (94.6 to 99.9)95.8 (91.9 to 98.2)18.1 (8.8 to 37.3)0.02 (0.0 to 0.12)
Abnormal heart for age <1 year94.6 (89.1 to 97.8)98.4 (91.3 to 100.0)99.2 (94.6 to 99.9)89.7 (80.9 to 94.7)95.8 (91.9 to 98.2)58.6 (8.4 to 409.9)0.06 (0.03 to 0.11)
  • *Abnormal heart includes ASD, PDA, VSD and VSD-PS.

  • †Approaches infinity as specificity is 100.

  • ASD, atrial septal defect; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; LR+, positive likelihood ratio; NPV, negative predictive value; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus; PPV, positive predictive value; VSD, ventricular septal defect; VSD-PS, VSD with pulmonic stenosis physiology.