Table 9

Characteristics of the studies, pharmacokinetics and dose recommendations of isolated studies on clonidine

StudynPNAWeightStudy designGroupModelModalityAdministered doseVdCLt1/2 (hours)Recommended dose
Kleiber et al,32 the Netherlands221
(IQR 6.4) month
(IQR 3.1)
2 groups
Children1-compartment with NONMEMVV–VA0.24 (0.15) µg/kg/hour infusion454 L/70 kg at ECMO start
29.9 L/hour/70 kg at ECMO start
The authors simulated the number of bolus doses of 5 µg/kg needed to reach the target concentration of 2 ng/mL within 1 hour: three repeated bolus doses of 5 µg/kg were needed.
  • Boldfaced fonts represent comparisons with controls within the same study. In other studies, they represent comparisons with non-ECMO neonates from a different published study.

  • CL, clearance; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; NONMEM, non-linear mixed-effects modelling; P, prospective; PNA, postnatal age; t1/2, elimination half-life; VA, veno-arterial; VD, volume of distribution; VV, veno-venous.