Table 10

Characteristics of the studies, pharmacokinetics and dose recommendations of isolated studies on morphine

StudynPNAWeightStudy designGroupModelModalityAdministered doseVdCLt1/2 (hours)Recommended dose
Peters et al,33 the Netherlands14824.2PInfants1-compartment with NONMEMVALD: 100 µg/kg
MD: 40 µg/kg/hour
Day 1: 1.89 mL/kg/min
Day 10: 3.33 mL/kg/min
Day 1: 1.1 mL/kg/min
Day 10: 6.0 mL/kg/min
Serum concentrations decrease during the first 10 days of ECMO, and that dose adjustments should be carried out.
  • Boldfaced fonts represent comparisons with controls within the same study. In other studies, they represent comparisons with non-ECMO neonates from a different published study.

  • CL, clearance; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; LD, loading dose; MD, maintenance dose; P, prospective; PNA, postnatal age; t1/2, elimination half-life; VA, veno-arterial; Vd, volume of distribution.