Table 3

Interventions and resource utilisation

Total patients
(n=60)
Acute respiratory failureP value§
Absent (n=34)Present (n=26)
Fluid accumulation*, (%)
At 24 hours11.1 (5.6–16.8)9.3 (4.8–14.8)14.2 (8.2–22.6)0.018
At 48 hours10.4 (5.9–15.3)8.8 (4.4–14.0)11.7 (6.9–23.7)0.077
At 72 hours10.5 (5.6–15.1)8.3 (4.4–13.3)12.2 (7.6–21.7)0.009
Early fluid accumulation†, n (%)33 (55.0)15 (44.1)18 (69.2)0.069
Patients with>15% fluid accumulation at 72 hours*, (N1=33/34, N2=25/26)‡14 (24.1)3 (9.1)11 (44.0)0.004
Fluid removal, n (%)
None, n (%)20 (33.3)15 (44.1)5 (19.2)0.004
Diuretic administration only, n (%)31 (51.7)18 (52.9)13 (50.0)
Renal replacement therapy, n (%)9 (15.0)1 (2.9)8 (30.8)
Vasoactive-inotropic agent administration
≥ 1 agent (s), n (%)23 (38.3)10 (29.4)13 (50.0)0.118
≥ 2 agents, n (%)10 (16.7)3 (8.8)7 (26.9)0.085
Duration of vasoactive-inotropic administration (hours), median (IQR)47.0 (22.7–93.2)46.0 (28.9–82.7)51.0 (17.2–94.5)0.976
Maximum VI scores, median (IQR)12.5 (8.0–26.0)10.0 (8.0–20.0)20.0 (10.0–70.0)0.131
Blood and blood component transfusion
PRC transfusion (mL/kg), median (IQR)17.0 (9.3–31.6)10.0 (7.8–24.6)20.5 (10.0–43.1)0.146
Platelet transfusion (mL/kg), median (IQR)11.3 (5.3–25.5)9.0 (5.3–20.2)18.7 (5.3–41.3)0.370
FFP transfusion (mL/kg), median (IQR)16.6 (10.0–25.6)10.9 (7.7–20.5)18.8 (10.0–28.3)0.220
Cryoprecipitate transfusion (mL/kg), median (IQR)6.7 (3.8–13.6)5.7 (4.5–8.5)6.8 (3.2–18.3)0.799
Antibiotic administration, n (%)57 (95.0)31 (91.2)26 (100)0.251
Other interventions
Thoracentesis, n (%)3 (5.0)0 (0)3 (11.5)0.076
Chest tube placement, n (%)2 (3.3)0 (0)2 (7.7)0.184
Invasive monitoring
Arterial blood pressure monitoring, n (%)12 (20.0)4 (11.8)8 (30.8)0.104
Central venous access, n (%)37 (61.7)16 (47.1)21 (80.8)0.015
Intra-abdominal pressure, n (%)2 (3.4)1 (2.9)1 (4.2)1.000
  • *Fluid accumulation (%) was calculated by the formula ((fluid intake – fluid output)/BW at PICU admission)×100.

  • †Early fluid accumulation was defined as fluid accumulation>10% on the first 24 hours after PICU admission.

  • ‡N1=number of patients who did not require respiratory support. N2=number of patients who were supported with NIV/MV.

  • §Pearson’s χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for qualitative data whereas Mann-Whitney U test for quantitative data.

  • FFP, Fresh frozen plasma; MV, mechanical ventilation; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; PICU, paediatric intensive care unit; PRC, Packed red cells.