Table 1

Clinical data of patients with and without abnormalities on DMSA scan, MCU and/or US KUB

No abnormalities on US KUB, DMSA scan and/or MCU (n=154)Abnormalities on US KUB, DMSA scan and/or MCU (n=24)P value
Demographics
 Age at first UTI (days)64.5 (46–78)49 (33–79)0.130
 Male114 (74.0%)18 (75.0%)0.919
 Gestational age <37 weeks at birth12 (7.8%)2 (8.3%)0.934
 Birth weight (g)3091 (2851–3308)3363 (2965–3575)0.015
 Small for gestational age at birth11 (7.2%)00.365
 Antenatal ultrasound abnormalities1 (0.6%)3 (12.5%)<0.001
Clinical course at first UTI
 Maximum temperature (°C)38.9 (38.4–39.4)39.1 (38.4–39.6)0.530
 Duration of illness at presentation (days)1 (1–2)1 (1–2)0.857
 Interval between start of antibiotics and resolution of fever (hours)14 (4–29)28 (17–39)0.022
Blood investigations
 CRP (mg/L)28.3 (15.4–59.9)30.0 (20.3–73.3)0.217
 Total white cell count (×109/L)15.4 (11.0–19.9)17.0 (14.1–22.3)0.264
 Positive blood culture9 (5.4%)3 (12.5%)0.199
Urine investigations
 Interval between onset of illness and urine collection (days)1 (1–2)1 (1–2)0.775
 White cell count (per μL)394 (22–1380)259 (86–685)0.817
 Epithelial cell (per μL)0 (0–8)1 (0–5)0.836
 Bacteria seen on urinalysis100 (64.9%)15 (62.5%)0.817
 Nitrites positive28 (18.2%)7 (29.2%)0.208
 Non-Escherichia coli 29 (18.8%)10 (41.7%)0.012
Post-UTI treatment and follow-up
 Antibiotic prophylaxis0.121
  Nil3 (1.9%)0
  Cephalexin136 (88.3%)19 (79.2%)
  Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole9 (5.8%)5 (20.8%)
  Nitrofurantoin2 (1.3%)0
 Recurrent UTI16 (10.4%)16 (66.7%)<0.001
  • Continuous variables were summarised with medians and IQRs and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Categorical variables were summarised in absolute counts and percentages, and compared using χ2 or Fisher’s exact tests.

  • CRP, C-reactive protein; DMSA, dimercaptosuccinic acid; MCU, micturating cystourethrogram; US KUB, ultrasound of the kidneys, ureters and bladder; UTI, urinary tract infection.