Table 1

Studies that met the inclusion criteria to be included in the meta-analysis

StudyContinentWHO regionCountryDuration (years)Live birthsStudy designSample descriptionIncome classQuality scoreDefinition of jaundice and clinical indicators
Bang et al 35 AsiaSoutheast AsiaIndia1763PAll neonatesLow-middle2Deaths from NNJ
Bhutani et al 14 North AmericaAmericasUSA52 935 674RTerm and near termHigh3Both ET and TSB >25 mg/dL
TSB >30 mg/dL
Bjerre et al 15 EuropeEuropeDenmark3249 308RTerm and near termHigh3TSB ≥510 µmol/L (30 mg/dL), ABE, ET
Christensen et al 16 North AmericaAmericasUSA10302 399RAll neonatesHigh4TSB >25 mg/dL, TSB >30 mg/dL, ABE, ET
Ebbesen et al 17 EuropeEuropeDenmark2128 344PTerm and near termHigh3TSB>ET indicated,
Ebbesen et al 38 EuropeEuropeDenmark8502 766PTerm and near termHigh3TSB ≥450 µmol/L (26 mg/dL), ABE
Eggert et al 18 North AmericaAmericasUSA3.8101 272RTerm and near termHigh3TSB >20 mg/dL, TSB ≥25 mg/dL
Flaherman et al 19 North AmericaAmericasUSA318 089RTerm and near termHigh3TSB>ET indicated
Gotink et al 20 EuropeEuropeNetherlands5683 048PTerm and near termHigh4TSB >500 µmol/L (29 mg/dL) or received ET+TSB > 340 µmol/L (20 mg/dL),
ET+TSB >430 µmol/L (25 mg/dL), ABE
Kuzniewicz et al 40 North AmericaAmericasUSA17525 409RTerm and near termHigh3TSB ≥25 mg/dL, ET
Le et al 37 AsiaWestern PacificVietnam2979RAll neonatesLow-middle2Need for PT, ET, kernicterus, death
Manning et al 22 EuropeEuropeUK31 500 052PAll neonatesHigh4TSB ≥510 µmol/L (30 mg/dL), ABE, death
McGillivray et al 23 AustraliaWestern PacificAustralia3893 693PTerm and near termHigh3TSB ≥450 µmol/L (26 mg/dL), ABE signs, ET
Meberg and Johansen24 EuropeEuropeNorway12424PAll neonatesHigh4TSB >350 µmol/L (20 mg/dL), ET, ABE
NNDP database25 AsiaSoutheast AsiaIndia2145 623PAll neonatesLow-middle4TSB >15 mg/dL, ET
Olusanya et al 62 AfricaAfricaNigeria25256RAll neonatesLow-middle2PT, ET
Sgro et al 26 North AmericaAmericasCanada2639 840PTermHigh3TSB >425 µmol/L (25 mg/dL), ET
Sgro et al 78 North AmericaAmericaCanada2760 000PTermHigh3TSB >425 µmol/L, or ET, ABE symptoms
Tikmani et al 3 AsiaEastern MediterraneanPakistan21690PAll neonatesLow-middle4Referred for jaundice, >15 mg/dL, ET
Wainer et al 38 North AmericaAmericasCanada221 856PTerm and near termHigh3TSB ≥342 µmol/L (20 mg/dL)
427 µmol/L (25 mg/dL),
≥513 µmol/L (30 mg/dL), ET
Zoubir et al 27 EuropeEuropeSwitzerland2146 288PAll neonatesHigh3TSB>ET, ET
  • ABE, acute bilirubin encephalopathy; ET, exchange transfusion; NNJ, neonatal jaundice; PT, phototherapy; TSB, total serum bilirubin.