Table 5

Risk factors for early expressive vocabulary delay at age 2 (≤10th percentile) (N=712)

EstORP value95% CI
Maternal demographic factors
 Ethnicity (relative to white British)
  Pakistani heritage0.892.430.054(0.99 to 5.97)
  Central/Eastern European0.972.640.196(0.60 to 11.48)
  Other0.381.470.437(0.56 to 3.85)
 Born in UK
  No−0.320.730.291(0.40 to 1.32)
 Education (relative to degree level)
  A-levels0.331.390.318(0.73 to 2.68)
  GCSEs0.121.120.625(0.70 to 1.80)
  None0.041.040.926(0.46 to 2.37)
 Financial security (relative to comfortable)
  Alright0.141.150.538(0.73 to 1.81)
  Just getting by0.101.110.748(0.59 to 2.09)
  Quite difficult0.271.310.587(0.49 to 3.47)
  Very difficult−0.630.530.566(0.06 to 4.55)
 Parental employment
  Neither parent employed−0.270.760.522(0.34 to 1.74)
 Size of household (no of individuals)*−0.160.850.005(0.77 to 0.95)
 Maternal age at screening0.021.020.221(0.99 to 1.07)
Maternal language factors
 First language (relative to English)
  Bilingual including English0.101.100.754(0.60 to 2.02)
  No English0.291.340.448(0.63 to 2.83)
 Languages at home (relative to English)
  Bilingual including English0.191.210.489(0.70 to 2.11)
  No English0.471.600.159(0.83 to 3.06)
Perinatal factors
 Birth weight (kg)−0.140.870.577(0.54 to 1.41)
 Gestation at birth (weeks) to 1.17)
Distal child factors
 Child sex
  Male*0.732.070.000(1.38 to 3.09)
 Child age (months)*−0.200.820.014(0.70 to 0.96)
Proximal child factors
 Receptive vocabulary (raw score)*2.138.400.000(4.99 to 14.11)
 Parent-reported hearing concerns
  Yes*2.067.850.005(1.90 to 32.47)
  • *Indicates p<0.05.