Table 1

Baseline characteristics, EASQ, HOME and psychosocial scores, by study arm, n=60

VariableControl arm (n=19) N (%) or mean (SD)Intervention arm (n=41) N (%) or mean (SD)P values
Child’s age in months*13.4 (5.9); range: 6–2215.9 (4.2), range: 6–230.10
Male sex7 (37)22 (54)0.22
Ever breast fed16 (84)35 (85)0.91
In utero substance-use exposure (maternal self-report)00NA
Mean number of weeks gestation at birth39.4 (0.9)38.8 (1.3)0.19
More than one primary caregiver13 (68)16 (39)0.03
Parent has HIV00NA
Mother’s education level higher than primary school14 (73.6)30 (73.2)0.97
Mother’s occupation is non-remunerative (housewife, student or not employed)**17 (89.5)34 (82.9)0.71
Mother is married or living as married**15 (79)40 (98)0.23
Maternal history of depression or attempted suicide**2 (10.5)5 (12.2)1.0
Hopkins Symptom Checklist score28.4 (6.8)24.6 (5.9)0.04
Social Support score27.1 (5.9)26.7 (6.5)0.82
  • *P value calculated using Wilcoxon rank sum test.

  • †P value calculated using Fisher’s exact test.

  • EASQ, Extended Ages and Stages Questionnaire; HOME, Home  Observation Measurement of the Environment; NA, not available.