Table 1

Child psychosocial and neurodevelopmental measures

Demographic dataHousehold income and assets, maternal education and employment.
Infant health informationWeight, height and diagnoses.
Infant neurodevelopmentMRI, DTI, MRS and fMRI.
AnfMRItal risk factorsBirth planning; partner support; maternal depression; alcohol, nicotine and illicit substance use; maternal childhood trauma; intimate partner violence; exposure to stressful events; psychological distress; and symptoms of peritraumatic and post-traumatic stress.
Trauma and exposure
 Emotional distressPaediatric emotional distress scale.
 Exposure to violenceChild exposure to community violence.
Survey for exposure to community violence.
 Dyadic interaction*Global rating scale.
Emotional availability scale.
 Parenting practicesParenting and family adjustment scale.
 AttachmentBrockington postpartum bonding questionnaire.
ResilienceChild and youth resilience measure.
General developmentWestern Cape screen.
Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III), Third Edition (Bayley-III).
General cognitive functionKaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II).
 Problem solvingKABC-II Conceptual thinking.
 Visual-spatial memory/processingKABC-II Face recognition.
 Visual-spatial processing and problem solvingKABC-II Triangles.
 Working memory and motor sequencingKABC-II Hand movements.
LanguagePeabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition.
KABC-II Expressive vocabulary.
 LearningKABC-II Atlantis.
 Delayed recallKABC-II Atlantis delayed.
Executive function
 Working memoryWechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, Fourth Edition: picture memory
 InhibitionDay–night task.
 Cognitive flexibilityDimension change card sort.
 AttentionTest of Everyday Attention: sky search.
 Motor controlBayley-III: fine motor.
Grooved peg board.
Social cognition
 Theory of mindDiverse desires.
Diverse beliefs.
Understanding intentions.
Location-change false belief.
Unexpected contents false belief.
Belief emotion.
Hidden emotions.
 Emotion recognitionA Developmental NEuroPSYchological Assessment (NEPSY-II): affect recognition.
Effortful control/emotion regulationSnack delay.
Rydell’s emotion questionnaire.
Social competence
 Affective arousalPupil dilation.
 Attention allocationGaze fixation.
 EmpathyChicago empathy for pain task.
Questionnaire of cognitive and affective empathy.
 Prosocial behaviourDictator game.
 Internalising and externalising behaviourChild behaviour checklist.
 TemperamentRothbart Infant and Early Child Behavior Questionnaire.*
 Callous-unemotional traitsCallous unemotional screening device.
  • References for the measures are given in the appendix.

  • *Very short forms.

  • DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; fMRI, functional MRI; MRS, magnetic resonance spectroscopy.