Table 4

Family risk and protective factors

VariableMbekweniTC NewmanTotalP values
Mean (SD)
PAFAS Parenting
 Consistency7.95 (2.01)6.24 (2.92)7.17 (2.61)<0.001
 Coercive parenting6.24 (3.38)5.19 (3.98)5.76 (3.70)<0.001
 Encouragement1.23 (1.66)1.00 (1.50)1.13 (1.59)0.113
 Parent–child relationship0.63 (1.48)1.37 (1.76)0.97 (1.65)<0.001
PAFAS Family Adjustment
 Parental adjustment2.72 (2.67)2.36 (2.86)2.56 (2.76)0.025
 Family relationships1.46 (2.01)2.45 (2.85)1.91 (2.48)<0.001
 Parental teamwork1.32 (1.67)1.93 (2.08)1.59 (1.89)<0.001
 SECV Total21.27 (6.57)26.92 (7.46)23.84 (7.53)<0.001
 CECV Total38.65 (3.88)40.13 (4.21)38.65 (3.88)<0.001
  • Note: the questionnaires were administered at 2.5 years. Higher scores on the PAFAS indicate higher levels of dysfunction, that is, higher consistency scores indicate less consistent parenting and higher coercive parenting scores indicate more coercive parenting.

  • CECV , Child Exposure to Community Violence Checklist; PAFAS, Parenting and Family Adjustment Scale  ; SECV, Survey for Exposure to Community Violence.