Table 1

Summary of study outcomes and instruments

OutcomeInstrumentUnits
Socioeconomic statusQuestionnaire (Portuguese National Institute of Statistics)
HeightHeight stadiometer (SECA 217, Hamburg, Germany)cm
WeightBioelectrical impedance scale (InBody 230, Seoul, Korea)kg
BMI(BMI=weight (kg)/height2 (m))kg/m2
BMI z-score(BMI z-score= ((BMI/M(t))L(t)−1)/L(t)S(t))
Waist circumferenceCircumference measuring tape (SECA 203, Hamburg, Germany)cm
Waist for height ratio(WHtR=waist circumference (cm)/height (cm))
Hip circumferenceCircumference measuring tape (SECA 203, Hamburg, Germany)cm
Body fat massBioelectrical impedance scale (InBody 230)%
Muscle mass%
Pubertal statusTanner’s stages
Resting BPDigital sphygmomanometer (CAS 9302S, CAS Medical Systems, Branford, USA)mm Hg
Blood glucoseHexokinase (ADVIA 2400, Siemens, Newark, Delaware, USA)mg/dL
Blood insulinChemiluminescence immunoassay (ADVIA 2400, Siemens)mg/dL
Insulin sensitivityHomeostasis model assessment
Total cholesterolEnzymatic (ADVIA 2400, Siemens)mg/dL
HDL-CDirect (ADVIA 2400, Siemens)mg/dL
TriglyceridesGPO Trinder (ADVIA 2400, Siemens)mg/dL
AST, ALT and GGTModified IFCC method (ADVIA 2400, Siemens)U/L
C reactive proteinTurbidimetric immunoassay (ADVIA 2400, Siemens)mg/L
Energy intake3-day food diarykcal
Physical activityAccelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X, Pensacola, Florida, USA)count/min
Whole body fatDXA (Explorer W, Hologic; Waltham, Massachusetts, USA)g
Trunk fatg
Whole body peripheral fatg
Trunk peripheral fatg
Sedentary behavioursQuestionnaire (ASAQ)min
PA enjoyment and self-efficacyQuestionnaire (PACES and TEOSQ)
cIMTUltrasound imager −13 MHz probe (MyLab One, Esaote, Genoa, Italy)mm
PWVApplanation tonometry (Complior, Alam Medical, Paris, France)m/s
CRFCycle ergometer (Monark 839 Ergomedic, Monark, Vansbro, Sweden)
Gas analyser (K4b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy)mL/kg/min
Resting heart rateDigital sphygmomanometer (OMRON M3 IT, Milton Keynes, UK)beats/min
Pre-exercise and postexercise BPmm Hg
Exercise energy expenditureCardiofrequencimeter (Polar Vantage NV, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland)kcal
  • ALT, alanine transaminase; ASAQ, Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire; AST, aspartate transaminase; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; cIMT, carotid intima-media thickness; CRF, cardiorespiratory fitness; DXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; GGT, Gamma-glutamyltransferase; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PA, physical activity; PACES, Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale; PWV, pulse wave velocity; TEOSQ, Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire.