Table 2

Disease and disorder outcomes associated with multiple adverse childhood experiences and toxic stress (not exhaustive)

Behaviour with significant health consequencesMental healthSocial inclusion difficultiesChronic disease and organ damage
Excessive food consumption leading to high body mass index and obesityMental ill health and psychiatric diagnoses
Harms to life prospects including:
education, employment, poverty and healthy relationships
Heart disease
SmokingDepressionRespiratory disease
Heavy or problematic alcohol useSuicidalityLiver or digestive disease
Problematic drug useSelf-directed and interpersonal violenceDiabetes mellitus
Sexual risk taking and teenage pregnancyPoor life satisfaction
  • Adapted from Hughes et al.41