Table 1

Baseline demographic, clinical and BSID-III characteristics of study participants

Characteristic*Individualised education (intervention) arm (n=84)Usual care arm
P values†
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years)26.08±6.8427.15±6.590.29
 Education (years)2 (0–3.5)2 (0–4)0.93
 Literacy, no. (%)44 (51.65)47 (52.38)0.92
 Parity2.5 (1–5)3 (2–5)0.43
Child characteristics
 Male, no. (%)49 (58.33)57 (62.64)0.56
 Age at BSID-III evaluation (months)16.32±4.9315.84±5.210.53
 Height-for-age z-score−3.40±0.69−3.41±0.730.91
 Weight-for-age z-score−2.01±0.74−1.94±0.820.54
 Weight-for-length z-score−0.26±0.86−0.13±0.900.35
Feeding practices indicators
 Minimum dietary diversity, no. (%)59 (70.24)49 (53.85)0.03
 Minimum meal frequency, no. (%)68 (80.95)81 (89.01)0.13
 Minimum acceptable diet, no. (%)51 (60.71)43 (47.25)0.07
Household characteristics
 No. of children under 5 years2 (1–2)2 (1–2)0.18
 Family poverty score28.33±11.6427.35±9.170.53
 Family care indicators score8.59±2.638.47±2.150.74
BSID-III subscales z-scores‡
 Receptive language−0.02±0.960.02±1.000.81
 Expressive language0.01±0.94−0.01±1.020.88
 Fine motor−0.15±0.940.14±1.000.06
 Gross motor−0.10±0.910.10±1.040.18
  • *Data presented as means±SD, median (IQR) or no. (%), as appropriate.

  • †Student’s t-test or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, Χ2 or Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables, as appropriate.

  • ‡ BSID-III, Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition.