Table 3

Gender-stratified partially adjusted and fully adjusted multilevel modelling for well-being and explanatory variables

VariablesBoysGirls
Model†Model‡Model†Model‡
B95 % CIB95 % CIB95 % CIB95 % CI
Substance use
 NoneReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 One−0.40**(−0.61 to –0.18)−0.14(−0.36 to 0.08]−1.51**(−1.73 to –1.30)−0.77**(−0.97 to –0.57)
 Two−2.16**(−2.57 to –1.75)−1.05**(−1.42 to –0.67)−4.84**(−5.22 to –4.46)−2.67**(−3.01 to –2.33)
 Three−3.50**(−4.11 to –2.88)−1.63**(−2.16 to –1.09)−5.80**(−6.36 to –5.23)−2.79**(−3.35 to –2.24)
Eating habits
 NoneReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 One−1.63**(−1.85 to –1.41)−0.89**(−1.18 to –0.60)−2.63**(−2.92 to –2.34)−1.37**(−1.69 to –1.06)
 Two−3.31**(−3.55 to –3.08)−1.84**(−2.14 to –1.54)−4.84**(−5.12 to –4.55)−2.29**(−2.64 to –1.96)
 Three−4.95**(−5.34 to –4.56)−2.44**(−2.82 to –2.06)−6.46**(−6.79 to –6.10)−2.61**(−3.04 to –2.18)
Sleeping hours (>8 hours)
 Not in the past 7 daysReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Some days2.98**(2.50 to 3.45]2.69**(2.10 to 3.28)4.69**(4.36 to 5.01)3.71**(3.34 to 4.08)
 Most days5.55**(5.11 to 5.99]4.30**(3.78 to 4.82)8.35**(8.01 to 8.69)6.64**(6.28 to 7.00)
 Everyday7.45**(7.03 to 7.86]5.79**(5.29 to 6.28)10.65**(10.29 to ,11.01)8.16**(7.72 to 8.60)
Bullying
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes−4.64**(−4.86 to –4.42)−3.78**(−4.09 to –3.48)−5.77**(−5.98 to –5.56)−4.01**(−4.23 to –3.78)
Physical activity
 Physically activeReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Inactive−3.78**(−4.02 to –3.55)−2.63**(−2.95 to –2.30)−2.77**(−3.04 to –2.50)−1.70**(−2.01 to –1.39)
Screen time
 About 2 hours/dayReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 ≤1 hours/day0.09(−0.57 to 0.75]0.34(−0.58 to 1.26)0.09(−0.69 to 0.87)−0.38(−1.49 to 0.72)
 About 3–4 hours/day−1.22**(−1.60 to –0.83)−0.61*(−0.99 to –0.23)−1.26**(−1.70 to –0.83)−0.54(−1.14 to 0.05)
 About 5–6 hours/day−2.15**(− 2.50 to  – 1.81)−0.82**(−1.27 to –0.37)−3.04**(−3.49 to –2.58)−1.21**(−1.75 to ,–0.67)
 ≥7 hours/day−3.67**(−4.06 to –3.27)−1.20**(−1.65 to –0.75)−5.32**(−5.73 to –4.90)−1.81**(−2.29 to –1.33)
Reading
 NoneReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 About Half an hour/day1.59**(1.38 to 1.80)0.57**(0.26 to 0.88)2.13**(1.84 to 2.42)0.56**(0.23 to 0.90)
 About 1 hour/day2.24**(2.04 to 2.43)1.04**(0.79 to 1.29)2.51**(2.24 to 2.78)0.60**(0.26 to 0.93)
 ≥2 hours/day2.28**(2.05 to 2.54)0.90**(0.55 to 1.25)2.34**(2.03 to 2.64)0.33*(0.02 to 0.64)
IMD scores
 High deprivationReferenceReference
 Average deprivation−0.12(−0.38 to 0.14)0.16(−0.16 to 0.49)
 Least deprivation0.17(−0.06 to 0.40)0.36*(0.06 to 0.66)
Ethnicity
 WhiteReferenceReference
 Mixed−0.06(0.81 to –0.59)0.44(−0.08 to 0.96)
 Asian−0.09(0.81 to –0.84)0.35(−0.53 to 1.23)
 Black0.99*(0.01 to 0.25)1.75**(1.20 to 2.31)
 Other−0.59(0.02 to –1.09)−0.19(−0.88 to 0.49)
Mode of questionnaire delivery
 Online
 paper0.24(−0.03 to 0.51)1.26**(0.99 to 1.53)
  • Multilevel models fitted with weighted design weights,  quadratic function added to reading.

  • *P<0.05; P<0.005.

  • †Each predictor variable adjusted for ethnicity, mode of questionnaire delivery and IMD. 

  • ‡ All  variables mutually adjusted for each other.

  • IMD,  Index of Multiple Deprivation.